Archive for the ‘General HR’ Category

Transfer and Promotion

December 4, 2013 Leave a comment


Internal Mobility

Internal Mobility is necessary to match the employee’s skill and requirements with the requirements of the job and those of the organization continuously.

Need for Internal Mobility :

-          Changes in job structure, job design, job grouping changes in technology, mechanization etc, resulting in encasement of job demand.

-          Expansion and diversification of production or operations

-          Adding different lines of auxiliary supportive activities

-          Taking up of geographical expansion and diversification

-           Introduction of creative and innovative ideas in all the areas of management resulting in increased job demands

-          Changes in employee skill, knowledge, abilities, aptitude, values etc.

-          Changing demands of trade unions regarding protecting the interests of their members.

-          Chancing government role in  human resource development

-          National economic and business trends and their impact on job design and demands.

-          Problem of maintenance of interpersonal relations and sound human relations

-          Social and religious conditions of the employees or the region.

Purposes of Internal Mobility

  1. To improve the effectiveness of the organization
  2. To maximize the employee efficiency
  3. To ensure discipline and
  4. To adopt organizational changes



According to Pigours and Myers, ‘Promotion is advancement of an employee to a better job – better in terms of greater responsibility, more prestige or status, greater skill and especially increased rate of pay or salary”.

Arun Monappa and Mirza S Saiyadain defined promotion as “the upward reassignment of an individual in an organization’s hierarchy, accompanied by increased responsibilities, enhanced status and usually with increased income though not always so”.

Conditions of promotions are:

  • Reassignment of higher level job to an employee than what he is presently performing
  • The employee will naturally be delegated with greater responsibility and authority than what he has had earlier. Promotion normally accompanied higher pay. It means in some cases, the employee perform higher level job and receive the salary related to the lower level job.
  • Promotion may be temporary or permanent depending upon the organizational needs and employee performance.

Types of Promotion:

  1. Vertical Promotion
  2. Up gradation
  3. Dry Promotion

Purposes of  Promotion:

  • To utilize the employee’s skill knowledge at the appropriate level in the organizational hierarchy
  • To develop competitive spirit and inculcate the zeal in the employees to acquire the skill, knowledge etc. required by higher level jobs.
  • To develop competent internal source of employees ready to take up jobs at higher levels in the changing environment.
  • To promote employees’ self development and make them await their turn of promotions. It reduces labour turnover.
  • To promote a feeling of contentment with the existing conditions of the company and a sense of belongingness.
  • To promote interest in training, development programmes and in team development areas.
  • To build loyalty and to boost morale.
  • To reward committed and loyal employees
  • To get rid of the problems created by the leaders of workers’ unions by promoting them to the officers’ levels where they are less effective in creating problems.
  • Promotion places the employees in a position where an employee’s skills and knowledge can be better utilized.
  • It creates and increases the interest of other employees in the company as they believe that they will also get their turn.
  • It creates among employees a feeling of content with the existing conditions of work and employment.
  • It increases interest in acquiring h9gher qualifications, in training and in self development with a view to meet the requirements of promotion.
  • It improves morale and job satisfaction
  • Ultimately it improves organizational health.

Benefits of Promotion

Promotion Principles:

  1. it should be consistent in the sense that policy should be applied uniformly to all employees irrespective of the background of the persons,
  2.  it should be fair and impartial.
  3. systematic line of promotion channel should be incorporated,
  4. it should provide equal opportunities for promotion in all categories of jobs, departments and regions of an organization,
  5. it should ensure open policy in the sense that every eligible employee should be considered for promotion rather than a closed system,
  6. it should contain clear cut norms and criteria for judging merit, length of service, potentiality etc.
  7. appropriate authority should be entrusted with the task of making a final decision, it should contain promotional counseling, encouragement, guidance and follow-up regarding promotional opportunities, job requirements and acquiring the required skills, knowledge etc.


Bases of Promotion:

  1.  Merit as a basis of Promotion:  skill, knowledge, ability, efficiency as aptitude as measured from educational, training and past employment record.


i.            The resourced of higher order of an employee can be better utilized at higher level It results in maximum utilization of human resources in an organization.

ii.            Competent employees are motivated to exert all their resources and contribute them to the organizational efficiency and effectiveness.

iii.             It works as golden hand-cuffs regarding employee turnover.

iv.            It continuously encourages the employees to acquire


  1. Measurement or judging of merit is highly difficult.
  2. Many people, particularly trade union leaders, distrust the management’s integrity in judging merit.
  3. The techniques of merit measurement are subjective.
  4. Merit denotes mostly the past achievements, efficiency but not the future success. Hence, the purpose of promotion may not be served if merit is taken as the sole criteria for promotion.
  1. Seniority as a Basis of Promotion: refers to relative length of service in the same job and in the same organization. The logic behind this as a basis of promotion is that there is a positive correlation between the length of service in the same job and the amount of knowledge and the level of skill acquired by an employee is an organization.
    1. It is relatively easy to measure the length of service and judge the seniority.
    2. There would be full support of the trade unions to this system.
    3. Every party trusts the management’s action as there is no scope for favouritism and discrimination and judgement.
    4. It gives a sense of certainty of getting promotion to every employee and of their turn of promotion.
    5. Senior employees will have a sense of satisfaction to this system as the older employees are respected and their inefficiency cannot be pointed out.
    6. It minimizes the scope for grievances and conflicts regarding promotion



  1. The assumption that the employees learn more relatively with length of service is not valid.
  2. It demotivates the young and more competent employees and results in employee turnover particularly among the dynamic force.
  3. It kills the zeal and interest to develop as everybody will be promoted with or without improvement.
  4. Organizational effectiveness may be diminished through the declaration of the human resources effectiveness as the human resources consists of mostly undynamic and old blood.
  5. Judging seniority though it seems to be easy in the theoretical sense, it is highly difficult in practice.

Seniority-cum-Merit Promotion:

Ways in striking balance between seniority and merit

  1. Minimum length of service and merit
  2. Measurement of seniority and merit through a common factor
  3. Minimum merit and seniority

Problems with promotion:

Glass Ceiling- Glass ceiling is an invisible barrier to promotion based in race, community, tribe, nationality, gender etc.

Promotion disappoints come employees

Some employees refuse promotion



“a lateral shift causing movement of individuals from one position to another usually without involving any marked change in duties, responsibilities, skills needed or compensation”

Transfer is defined as “… the moving of an employee from one job to another. It may involve a promotion, demotion or no change in job status other than moving from one job to another”.



Types of Transfer
1. To meet the organizational requirements Production Transfer
2 To satisfy employees’ needs Personal Transfer
3 To utilize employee’s skill knowledge etc
4 To improve employee’s background by placing him in different jobs of various departments, units etc. Remedial Transfer
5 To correct inter-personal conflicts
6 To adjust the workforce of one section/plant in other section/plant during lay-off, closure or adverse business conditions etc.
7 To give relief to the employees who are overburdened or doing complicated or risky work for a long period Replacement Transfer
8 To punish the employees who violate the disciplinary rules Penal Transfer
9 To help the employees whose working hours or place of work is inconvenient to them Shift Transfer
10. To minimize fraud, bribe etc which result due to permanent stay and conduct of an employee with customers, dealers, suppliers etc.
11 To increase the versatility of employees Versatile Transfer (Rotation transfer)
  1. Employee initiated Transfer (1) Temporary Transfer (2) Permanent Transfer
  2. Company initiated Transfer (1) Temporary transfer  (2) Permanent Transfer
  3. Public Initiated Transfer



  1. Unsuitability of the employee to higher level jobs
  2. Adverse business conditions
  3. New technology and new methods of operation
  4. On disciplinary actions

Demotion Principles:

  1. Specification of circumstances under which an employee will be demoted like reductions in operation, indisciplinary cases.
  2. Specification of supervisor who is authorized and responsible to initiate a demotion.
  3. Jobs from and to which demotions will be made and specifications of lines or ladders of demotion.
  4. Specification of basis for demotion like length of service, merit or both.
  5. It should provide for an open policy rather than a closed policy
  6. It should contain clear cut norms for judging merit and length of service
  7. Specification of provisions regarding placing the demoted employees in their original places if normal conditions are restored.
  8. Specification of nature of demotion, i.e., whether it is permanent or temporary of it is as disciplinary action. It should also specify the guidelines for determining the seniority of such demoted employees.




Labour bureau, defined the term ‘absenteeism’ as “the failure of a worker to report for work when he is scheduled to work”.

Labour Bureau defined “ absenteeism is the total man-shifts lost because of absence as a percentage of the total number  of  man-shifts scheduled to work”


  1. Authorised Absenteeism
  2. Unauthorised Absenteeism
  3. Willful Absenteeism
  4. Absenteeism caused by circumstances beyond one’s control


  • Maladjustment with the working conditions
  • Social and religious ceremonies
  • Unsatisfactory housing conditions at the work place
  • Industrial fatigue
  • Unhealthy working conditions
  • ‘poor welfare facilities
  • Alcoholism
  • Indebtedness
  • Maladjustment with job demands
  • Unsound personal policies
  • Inadequate leave facilities
  • Low level of wages.

Measures to Control :

  1. Right selection
  2. Humanistic approach in dealing personal problems
  3. Proactive approach in identifying and redressing employee grievances
  4. Providing hygienic working conditions
  5. Providing welfare measures and fringe benefits
  6. Providing high wages and allowances
  7. Providing leave facility based on needs
  8. Providing safety and health measures
  9. Providing cordial relations and industrial relations
  10. Educating the workers
  11. Counseling the workers about their career, income and expenditure, habits and culture
  12. Free- flow of information, exchanging of ideas, problems etc.
  13. Granting leave and financial assistance liberally in case of sickness
  14. Offering attendance bonus and inducements
  15. Providing extensive training, encouragement, special allowances in cash for technological advancement.

External Mobility

External mobility means shifting of employees into and out of an organization

Rate of change in the employees of an organization during a definite period.

Types of labour turnover:

  1. Accessions
  2. Separations
  • Voluntary quitting
  • Layoff or lack of work
  • Disciplinary lay-off
  • Retirement and death

Employee Engagement

November 22, 2013 1 comment

Originally posted on Human Resources Management:

Employee Engagement

Employee engagement can be defined as an employee putting forth extra open effort, as well as the likelihood of the employee being loyal and remaining with the organization for long time. Engaged employees, perform better, put in extra efforts to help get the job done, show a strong level of commitment to the organization, and are more motivated and optimistic about their work goals. Employers with engaged employees tend to experience low employee turnover and more impressive business outcomes.

Employee engagement is essential. In order for organizations to meet and surpass organizational objectives, employees must be engaged.

Engaged employees reflects in following way,

  • Higher self-motivation.
  • New ideas generation
  • Higher productivity.
  • Higher levels of customer satisfaction.
  • Reliability.
  • Organizational loyalty; less employee turnover.
  • Lower absenteeism.

Focus on employee engagement: 

Organizations are focusing on the significance of employee engagement and how to make employees more engaged. Employees feel engaged when…

View original 1,109 more words

How to start your Job Search

November 20, 2013 Leave a comment


Start Your Job Search


When do I start?

When is the best time to begin a job search? If you’re asking the question, the best time is now. Before your first interview takes place, plan your career moves. It’s not unusual for an entry-level job seeker to spend six months to a year finding the job that best matches their interests and skills. For a full-time position after graduation, some begin a job search during the school year while others wait until after graduation. Your career interests, values and financial status also have an impact on when to begin. For an internship, part-time, temporary or seasonal position, any time is the right time!  Here are some resources to help you navigate the many components of a job search:

Build a Resume


What is a resume?

A resume is a document that provides a concise outline of your job-related experiences and academic background. The purpose of a resume is not to get you a job, but an interview. Resumes are a screening device for employers so they can decide whether you are someone they would like to meet and learn more about.

Think of your resume as a commercial: How can you best present yourself? Know your audience and highlight what you can offer them!

These guidelines are general suggestions, not hard and fast rules. Resume content, formats, and styles may vary according to individual preferences and career fields (e.g., what is “creative” in advertising and public relations may be too flashy for finance or physical therapy).

Resume Guidelines

  • Know your audience: As much as possible, include experiences that are relevant to the work you seek. Use the jargon of the field if you know it. If you don’t, do some research.
  • Advertise your strengths: Write powerfully, beginning your statements with action verbs.
  • Focus on accomplishments and the results of your work. Use numbers and/or percentages when possible to make your examples more specific and impressive.
  • Make your resume skimmable: The body and layout should be concise. Write in fragments, not sentences. Put fragments in paragraph form or list them with a bullet point or other symbol preceding.
  • Use clear and articulate writing: Be sure to proofread multiple times and review for grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors.

How do I list my experience?

Make a list of all your past and present job and accomplishments. Make sure to include what you did (your responsibilities and skills used/developed) and to what extent. Remembering what you did may be easier if you think about your experiences in the following categories.

  • Jobs
  • Education
  • Community service
  • Technical skills
  • Internships
  • Campus activities
  • Research experience
  • Significant class projects
  • Awards/honors
  • Foreign languages


How do I organize my resume?

Chronological resumes

Chronological resumes list jobs and experiences in reverse chronological order with most recent work first. This style of resume is most frequently used by students and recent graduates.


  • Easiest to prepare
  • Easiest for employers to read
  • Most familiar to employers


  • Reveals employment gaps
  • Can emphasize experiences you want to minimize
Functional resumes

Functional resumes present information under headings. Abilities and experiences are grouped according to job-related functions such as research, statistical analysis, outreach, supervision and teaching.


  • Emphasizes skill areas applicable to a specific field of work
  • Not typically used by recent college graduates, so these resumes stand out


  • More difficult to write
  • Requires an in-depth look at the skills you possess, how you developed them, and which you choose to market

What are common headings/sections?

Contact information

Make sure your full name is at the top of your resume and stands out from your address. Remember you want to be noticed.

  • If you are between addresses, you may want to list two present address and permanent address (usually relatives who know how to contact you).
  • Include an e-mail address and be sure to check it regularly.
  • Tip: Avoid inappropriately named e-mail addresses (such as

The education section should list schools you attended in reverse chronological order with degrees and graduation dates or expected graduation dates.

  • You can also include certificates awarded, specialized course work, and overseas study.
  • Honors and awards can also be included in this section for example: scholarships, GPA (if over 3.0) and academic/school-related awards (e.g. Dean’s List, honor societies or “Work-Study Student of the Year”).
  • Listing high school is optional.

Your experience section can be arranged in a number of ways or divided into more than one section, depending on your individual experiences. It should be organized in reverse chronological order (most recent first).

Optional sections

The following sections are optional and should be included only if they market you effectively. Remember your space limitations: a one page resume is generally recommended, especially for recent graduates.

  • Summary of qualifications or skills
  • Professional memberships or affiliations
  • Professional development
  • Licenses or certifications
  • Articles or publications
  • Student Leaderships
  • Activities
  • Interests or hobbies
  • Military experience
  • Honors and awards
  • Foreign languages
  • Computer skills


Professional objective:

A professional objective also called “job” or “career objective” is an optional statement.

  • It should be concise (one or two sentences) and indicate the type of work or position you are seeking.
  • It should suggest as clearly as possible a sense of purpose and direction. Avoid vague or overly general statements
  • It is not always appropriate or necessary to include an objective on your resume. You may want to include these statements in your cover letter instead, enabling you to tailor your application to specific jobs and organizations.


Objective: Seeking a position as a Executive in a Human Resources environment.

Objective: To obtain an entry-level position in the field of public relations


References are people you contact who agree to speak with potential employers regarding their interactions with you.

  • Your references should be professional references, not personal – meaning that they should be able to provide insight regarding your skills, experiences, and work ethic.
  • This section is optional in that an employer will ask for your references whether or not you indicate that your references are “available upon request.”
  • When identifying professional references, you should list them on a separate page, providing names, titles, work addresses, phone numbers, e-mail, and fax numbers. 

 How do I submit my resume electronically?

Many employers will ask you to submit your resume via e-mail. Clarify whether they would like your resume as an attachment or in the body of the e-mail. Follow their directions exactly!

  If the employer would like your resume in the body of the e-mail, copy and paste the content of your resume in, delete all formatting (underlines, bullets, tabs, etc.) Left justify everything.

  If the employer would like your resume as an attachment, make sure you submit your resume as a PDF. This ensures your formatting stays consistent.

  Attach your resume with your name as the title (e.g., xyzStudentResume.doc). You can include your cover letter in the body of the the e-mail or as a separate attachment. If you are sending as an attachment, include a short statement in the body of the e-mail, such as,

“Please find attached my cover letter (title) and resume (title), expressing my interest for (the) position. Please let me know if you need any further information.”

  You may be asked to submit your resume directly through a company/organization website or a third party job search site (e.g. Experience, Career Builder). Be sure to save your resume as a PDF to maintain formatting.

How do I present and deliver my resume?

If you are mailing an application, be sure to use high-quality printing for your resume.

Make copies on resume quality paper.

Include a cover letter on matching paper.

You can send your resume in either a large envelope or a business envelope that matches your resume and cover letter paper.


Career Planning

November 20, 2013 Leave a comment



Career planning is the systematic process by which one selects career goals and the path to these goals and the path to these goals. A career plan is a blue print in which the entire career of employees is mapped out from the point of their entry into the point of their retirement from the organization.


  1. Career planning is a process of developing human resources rather than an event.
  2. It is not an end itself, but a means of managing people to obtain optimum results.
  3. Career planning is a continuous process due to an ever changing environment.
  4. Career planning is an individual’s responsibility, but it is the responsibility of an organisation to provide guidance and counseling to its employees in planning their careers and in developing and utilizing their knowledge and skills. Goals of employees should be integrated with organizational goals.
  5. The basic aim of career planning is integration of individual and organizational needs.
  6. To attract and retain the right type of persons in the organization.
  7. To map out the careers of employees suitable to their ability, and their willingness to be trained and developed for higher positions.
  8. To ensure better use of human resource through more satisfied and productive employees.
  9. To have a more stable work force by reducing labour turnover and absenteeism.
  10. To improve morale, motivation and provide guidance and encourage employees to fulfill their potentials.



Career goals: The future positions one strives to reach as part of a career.

Career path: The sequential pattern of jobs that form a career.

Career progression: Making progress in ones career through promotions.

Career counseling: Guiding and advising people on their possible.

Mentoring: The process where an executive or senior employee service as a teacher, advisor.

Career anchor: Urge to take up a certain type of career.

Career development: The personal movements an individual makes to achieve his career plan.

Career management: The process of designing and implementing plan to enable the organization, to satisfy employer needs and allow individuals to achieve their career goals.


Identifying individual needs and aspirations

           To identify the individual needs, employee who are already fit and willing to take higher responsibility, they need training and experience, employee who have the capability to take higher responsibilities but lack in interest or desire.

Analyzing career opportunities

           To analyze the demand in terms of knowledge, skill, experience, attitude also analyze the short term and long term career goals.

Identifying match and mismatch

           A mechanism for identifying congruence between individual career aspirations and organization career system is developed to identify and compare specific areas of match and mismatch for different categories of employees.

Formulating and implementing strategies

           Changes in the career system by creating new path by providing opportunities for lateral movements through job readiness changing employee needs, by creating new aspirations. Training and development is given to the suitable people so as to the needs of both the individual and the organization.

Reviewing career plans

           Effective utilization of human resource by matching employee objective to job needs.


           Career planning may require advising and guiding employees in their possible career paths and the direction in which they ought to be heading. Such advising and guiding is called career counseling.


  1. Career planning helps an employee know the career opportunities available in an organization.
  2. The knowledge enables the employee to select the career most suitable to his potential and aptitude.
  3. An organization with well designed career plans has a better image in the job market.
  4. Career planning helps to retain hard working and talented employees.
  5. This process helps employee morale and productivity.
  6. It is a survey of employee abilities and attitudes.
  7. Career planning anticipates the future vacancies that may arise due to retirement, resignation, death, etc.
  8. Career planning facilities expansion and growth of the enterprise.


           1. It is not suitable for small organization (Vertical mobility available)

           2. Career plans for a period exceeding a decade may not be effective

3. It is not suitable for large organization (difficult in wage structure, absence of            adequate opportunities).


           Career development is essential implement in career plans. It consists of activities undertaken by the individual employees of the organization to meet career aspirations and job requirement.

  1. 1.   Career need assessment:

      Career needs of employees can be judged by evaluating their aptitudes, abilities, and potential. Many employees may not be aware of what they want to become.

  1. 2.   Career opportunities:

      Career opportunities that can be ______ should be identified through job analysis.

  1. 3.   Need opportunity alignment:

      Career development employee needs are aligned with available career opportunities to help the employee integrate the development need with organization opportunities.

  1. 4.   Monitoring career moves:

      It is necessary to maintain the record the career movements of employee and to monitor the progress towards the predetermined career goals.


  1. To fill up key positions in future.
  2. Succession planning helps an organization to groom the successors for key posts. So that there is high level of match between the role requirements and personnel abilities.
  3. When succession planning is undertaken effectively and overall suitability of personnel is worked out on objective criteria.
  4. Time lag: The Organization which do not devote so much of time to find that their succession planning.
  5. Lack of interest: succession related issues may be acknowledged, necessary, preparatory are not defined or licensed in sufficient depth. This makes the result of succession planning exercise meaningless in many cases.
  6. Over emphasizes: succession planning over emphasizes identifying succession at the cost of integrating learning experiences relevant to future positions. This can occur because of a lack of specific future position requirement.
  7. Involvement of supervisory board: There is a need for active involvement of the supervisory board or any other high level group of functionaries in succession planning. It should succession as a continuous systematic process and may set up a committee specifically to formulate long term strategies for the recruitment, evaluation, development, retention and dismissal of senior executive.
  8. Driven by CEO: chief executive takes direct personal interest in succession planning. He must take suitable processes and structures are in a place to provide for a support on effective succession planning.
  9. Procedural consistency: to take procedural steps to lead succession planning. It is not a seasonal problem. It is continuous strategic evolutionary process that is write independent of the company’s current situation.
  10. External bench marketing: For making the succession planning successful there is a suitability of the possible successors against bench marked skill requirements. The bench marking should be external rather than internal.
  11. Pool of successors: To build a pool of successors who are aspiring top positions in the organization. To manage an executive cadre of this kind.
  12. Objectivity: To finding out successors from the outside also or widened their scope.
  13. Application of emotional intelligence: To spending a time to control emotional and discussing expectations, suitability and needs of all those involved in the executive succession process.



Induction Process

November 20, 2013 Leave a comment


Induction is the process of acclimatizing a new employee to the new social setting of his work.


  1. Familiarizing the new employee with his new surroundings and company rules and regulations – Company history products and major operations geography of the plant, structure of the organization and function of various departments. General company policy safety and accidents discipline and grievances, uniform and clothing and parking. Opportunity for promotional services available.
  2. Integrating his personnel goal with the organizational goals – Ultimate analysis, what is good for the company is also good for him.


Group lectures individual interviews with key people and company films. To complete Induction Programme is generally. It is divided into two phases,

  1. Personal department
  2. Supervision


Greeting the new comer cordially – Explaining the importance of the job in relation to other job.

Displaying a personal interest in the new comer – Introducing the new comer to the rest of the work team.

Reviewing his terms of employment – Telling the new comer his duties

Giving additional information – Selecting a person who can arrest the new comer on the job

Showing the new comer around – following – up frequently


Low morale, Low productivity, more accidents, requests for transfer absenteeism and various sorts of complaints.


  1. To build-up a two way channel of communication between management and workers.
  2. Proper induction facilities relations and team work among employees.
  3. Effective induction helps to integrate the new employer into the organization and to develop a sense of belonging.
  4. Induction is helpful in supplying information concerning in organization the job and employee welfare facilities.
  5. Proper induction reduces employee grievances.
  6. A company is taking a sincere interest in getting him a good state.
  7. Induction helps to develop good public relation.
    1. Human side is the most important part of orientation. Therefore first of all the new employee should be introduced to the people with whom he will work – his colleagues, superiors and subordinates.
    2. Make the new employee aware of the general company.
    3. Orientation should be a gradual process.
    4. Answer any questions and clarify any doubts that the employee may have about the job and orientation.
    5. Provide on the job instructions and councelling.
    6. Keep in close touch with the employee to check back how he is doing and offer help if required.
    7. Allow reasonable time to adapt to the new work environment and job demands.


  1. Human side is the most important part of orientation. Therefore first of all the new employee should be introduced to the people with whom he will work – his colleagues, superiors and subordinates.
  2. Make the new employee aware of the general company.
  3. Orientation should be a gradual process.
  4. Answer any questions and clarify any doubts that the employee may have about the job and orientation.
  5. Provide on the job instructions and councelling.
  6. Keep in close touch with the employee to check back how he is doing and offer help if required.
  7. Allow reasonable time to adapt to the new work environment and job demands



October 31, 2013 Leave a comment



In today’s environment of increased accountability, the training evaluation process is a critical component of an organization’s training program. OrgImageanizations administering the program not only are accountable for what employees learn, they also are accountable for ensuring that employees transfer their knowledge to their work performance. While traditional training evaluation methods focus on using the assessment process to improve training delivery, information should also be collected to determine whether training is assisting the organization to improve its business performance.

Training Evaluation Approach

Evaluation methods should be determined based on the goals of the training process and should meet the demands of the various stakeholders involved. Every organization has multiple stakeholders and not everyone within the organization has the same information needs. Typically, organizational stakeholder groups include the training department, employees and business units. Their information requirements fall into two categories: whether the competencies have been learned and whether the learning has been applied toward improved performance.

Assessment of Competency Learning

The assessment of competency learning, whether the training material has been learned, is best conducted at the individual level. It is at the individual level that organizations are able to assess employees’ reactions and increased understanding. Reactions are important because, if students react negatively to a course, they are less likely to transfer what they learned to their work. Increased understanding in terms of new or improved knowledge, skills and abilities is the primary aim of a training event.

The training department requires information about competency learning to determine the effectiveness of training delivery and approach. Data concerning the overall effectiveness of training procedures, appropriateness of media and instruction methods and other issues relating to possible revisions in instructional design may prove to be very valuable to the training department and will assist them in better serving the needs of the other stakeholders involved. This information can be obtained through:

Questionnaires - Questionnaires offer a structured tool that may provide both quantitative and qualitative information about employee reactions to the training event. The questionnaire should focus on both training content and delivery. The training content section should target questions to ascertain whether the training materials provide useful information that will assist in performing work tasks and whether the employee is more knowledgeable about the subject matter following the training event. The training delivery section should determine whether the information was presented in a logical order, at the appropriate level of detail and in an appropriate format.


This information will assist the training department in determining how the training material should be revised or supplemented and whether the training medium used is best suited to the training content. It will also allow the training department to maintain an internal inventory of training vendors or offerings that have been rated best or least effective.

Knowledge Review - Knowledge reviews offer an objective means of determining whether training content has been learned. Knowledge reviews refer to a general group of assessment tools in which employees read questions and respond in writing. The knowledge reviews may be administered by delivering the tool at the start and end of the training event. The tool should be developed as a short answer or multiple-choice instrument using the same questions in each administration, presented in a different order. The questions on the knowledge review should adequately address the learning objectives of the training. The results of each administration of the knowledge review can be compared to measure knowledge transfer during the training event. This information will be useful in assisting the training department to improve the course material.

Observation - Observation is another evaluation method that provides information regarding employee reactions to the training. Training department personnel should observe employee interaction, level of engagement with training instructors and responses to course content. This evaluation technique may be informal or highly structured. Informal observation can be used to provide general information about the training structure. Alternatively, highly structured observation focuses on monitoring particular points in the training event and commonly involves the utilization of a checklist of the points to be observed.

Employees also require information about competency learning. However, the information provided to employees should be related to their ability to do their job better. These stakeholders will benefit by understanding their own strengths and weaknesses and how they have been addressed through the training process. This information can be obtained through:

Employee Portfolio - The employee portfolio is an effective means of providing information to employees as well as their managers about the level of mastery of particular knowledge, skills or abilities following a training event. The employee portfolio should be designed to be used for informational purposes only. The mresults of the portfolio are not intended to be linked to employee performance evaluations.

To implement this concept, employees should be required to identify the learning objectives of the training and within a 60-day time frame develop a work sample for review by the manager that demonstrates the application of their learning. The business unit manager should be required to ensure that within that time frame employees are assigned activities that will allow them to produce the portfolio. After receiving the portfolio, the manager should review it and provide feedback to the employee on strengths and areas for improvement.

Skill Gap Analysis - Another means of providing employees information about their skill development is to require business unit managers to conduct an assessment of each employee’s level of knowledge, skills and abilities relative to the level required for successful performance in the position. The Skill Gap Analysis can be administered using a survey instrument. A skill gap occurs when an employee is rated with a lower level of skill than the position requires. This assessment should be used for informational purposes only and should not be linked to the employee evaluation process. Employees can use the results of this assessment to track their skill development over time from their manager’s perspective.

Assessment of Competency Application

The assessment of competency application, whether the competencies have been applied to improve performance and justify the investment, is best conducted at the organizational level, where performance changes can be assessed and related to training costs incurred. If, as a result of training, employees are using appropriate behaviors on the job, this should have a positive impact on their performance. However, the level of performance improvement should justify the expenditure.

For the business units, the training evaluation process can provide opportunities to determine how competencies are being applied on the job. The information will assist them in making sound business decisions and determining training priorities. This information can be obtained through:

Analysis of Organizational Performance Measures - Organizational performance measures identify the metrics against which successful business unit operations can be evaluated. These measures will enable performance tracking to identify trends and areas requiring further attention and/or interventions.

As a training evaluation method, the changes in organizational performance measures should be compared to the employee Skill Gap Analysis. This comparison will identify the relationships between skill development and business performance. Information derived from this analysis will allow business unit managers to identify performance strengths and areas for improvement and make decisions about where additional training may be required. The use of organizational performance measures to assess training allows business units managers to be results-oriented and business-focused in their prioritization of training requirements.

Analysis of Training Return on Investment (ROI) - ROI is a measure of the monetary benefits obtained by an organization over a specified time period in return for a given investment in a training program. ROI can be used both to justify a planned investment and to evaluate the extent to which the desired return was achieved. ROI is calculated by making estimates or obtaining measurements of the costs and benefits associated with a training program. Using this information, the business units can effectively assign and apply resources to improve performance and ensure organizational success.


The training evaluation process has the potential to provide useful information to multiple stakeholder groups. By designing an effective training evaluation process, an organization can obtain the information needed to improve both training program delivery and business performance, creating opportunities for continuous organizational improvement. 

Diwali Celebration – Safety tips

October 30, 2013 Leave a comment

diwali celebration


Special precautions should be taken at the time of Diwali celebrations specially when bursting fire crackers. A few simple prevention measures are outlined below which would help you in celebrating this festival safely.

Fire Safety/Firework accident Prevention


The Do’s


  • Make sure you buy Fireworks from a licensed shop.
  • Always keep the fireworks in a closed box.
  • Store crackers away from sources of fire or ignition also keep them away from the reach of children.
  • Read the instructions and follow all safety precautions recommended for the use of fire works.
  • Light crackers in open spaces.
  • While lighting the crackers stand at an arm’s length from the cracker.
  • Discard used fireworks in a bucket of water. In this manner you can avoid people from stepping on to and hurting their feet from used fireworks which are thrown on the ground.
  • Keep buckets of water and blankets ready, in case a firebreaks out.
  • Wear heavier cotton clothes while lighting crackers so as to ensure maximum safety from fire.
  • If your clothes happen to catch fire, do not panic, drop down on the ground and roll.
  • Store water and keep it ready near the place of fireworks celebrations.
  • Keep a wet towel ready to cover your exposed parts when some crackers may accidentally burst.
  • Keep the regulators of your cooking gas cylinders turned off and do not keep the cylinders in balconies or open spaces to keep them protected from stray rockets.
  • Put earplugs (or cotton wool) in your ears.
  • Keep small portable extinguishers handy for urgent use.


 The Don’ts


  • Don’t burn crackers in crowded, congested places, narrow lanes, near sources of fire or inside the house.
  • Don’t put fireworks in your pocket.
  • Don’t cover crackers with tin containers or glass bottles for extra sound effect.
  • Don’t examine un-burst crackers…leave it!! Light a new cracker
  • Don’t light crackers on your hands. People have a tendency of lighting the fuses by bringing the cracker to the candle or incense rather than bringing the candle or incense to the fuse. Moving the candle of the incense to the fuse is the recommended method.
  • Avoid long loose clothes as they may get caught up in the fireworks and can catch fire.
  • In the event that someone is burnt, don’t remove burnt clothing (unless it comes off easily), but do ensure that the victim is not still in contact with smouldering materials.
  • Don’t try to burst the blisters.
  • The earthen lamps lit on Diwali night are generally placed on balcony and window ledges. Ensure that these are not near any flammable material like wood, cloth or paper.
  • Usually, decorative lights and electric lights should never be tied to any metal poles as any current leak can energize the pole and give a shock to anyone who touches the pole.
  • Fireworks and alcohol don’t mix: Drinking alcohol presents an added danger when there are fireworks and bonfires around. So don’t drink during your fireworks display.
  • Don’t light flying fireworks if there is a heavy wind.  

Fire safety and children


  • Make sure a responsible adult whom the children listen to, is present when they are bursting firecrackers. Children often tend to listen to their favourite aunt or uncle on these matters.
  • Warn your children against lighting crackers while holding them in their hands.
  • And last, but not least, remember that Diwali is a festival to be enjoyed by all. So, celebrate in a manner that does not cause inconvenience or harm to your neighbour.


Diwali and Pets


  • Pets get very frightened and jittery (and then occasionally become violent) on fireworks night, so keep all your pets indoor and close all the curtains to make things calmer. Remember it’s not just your own fireworks that cause distress, so you may have to have your pets indoors on several nights when other displays are taking place.

First Aid:

Burns happen when your skin comes into contact with something hot, such as fire, or if you are exposed to a radiated heat source, such as the sun.

Burns are usually divided into three categories depending on how much of the skin they affect. Superficial burns (first degree) affect the surface of the skin, making it red, swollen, and painful. This sort of burn can be treated at home and usually heals in between 7-10 days. Partial (second degree) and full thickness (third degree) burns are much more serious, and require medical attention.

Treating minor burns

To treat superficial (minor) burns at home follow the advice below.

  • Cool the skin using cool, or tepid, water for between 10-30 minutes, ideally within 20 minutes of the injury happening. This will prevent the burn getting worse.
  • Do not use ice, iced water, creams, or greasy substances, such as butter to sooth the burn. A cool bath, or shower, will help to soothe the burn.
  • If fingers or toes are burned, try and separate them with dry, sterile, non-adhesive dressings.
  • Avoid any kind of friction or pressure on the burnt area.
  • If the burn is painful, taking a mild painkiller, such as paracetamol, or ibuprofen, can help. However, always check the packaging to make sure that you take the correct dosage.
  • Do not interfere with the burn, or break any blisters. If the burn is very painful, or seems to be getting worse Rush the victim to the hospital immediately.
    • Deep, or large burns, or burns to the face, hands, or across joints, must always be checked by a doctor and may require hospital treatment.


Health & Environment friendly tips to celebrate Diwali


  • Instead of individual celebration prefer community celebration. With the increasing trend of gated community all the families of the community can celebrate Diwali in the common space. This will ensure reduced cost of celebration; paper pollution in a limited space and as compared to individual celebration, community celebration will cause less air and noise pollution.
  • Even while celebrating commonly make sure that you limit your celebration for a limited period of time. Your celebration can last for maximum 3 to 4 hours.
  • Instead of electric illumination go for traditional lightening of earthen lamps or diyas. This will not only enhance the beauty of your house but will also cut down the enormous electric consumption. Though earthen lamps need oil but the quantity is less and it gives light for at least 3-4 hours.
  • Cut down your shopping list and avoid purchasing unwanted and unnecessary things this Diwali. Excess consumerism is directly related to the consumption of raw material used to manufacture those things. Excessive consumerism increases the undue pressure on the natural resources.
  • Instead of buying “one-time use” items go for recyclable things. Secondly while cleaning your home for Deepawali instead of disposing things it is better to give it to under-privilege people.
  • Celebrate Diwali with a different meaning. You can celebrate this Diwali with poor and under-privilege children. Share your Diwali crackers, sweets and happiness with poor children.

Wishing a Safe




Employee Life Cycle Joining to Leaving

October 29, 2013 Leave a comment

Employee Documents

(Joining to Leaving)



Employee File Contain(at the time of joining):-


  1. Personal Information form
  2. Copy Of updated CV
  3. copy of offer letter
  4. copy of appointment letter
  5. welcome letter
  6. Confirmation Letter
  7. interview assessment sheet
  8. Education certificate (SSC, HSC/ Diploma, Degree)
  9. experience certificate
  10. Salary certificate
  11. Employee joining report
  12. PAN Number Copy
  13. Passport Copy (if Any)
  14.  Physical Fitness Certificate
  15.  Photo Id proof
  16. Salary Slip of current employment
  17. PF Forms
  18. ESI form
  19. Employee Superannuation Form
  20. Employee Group Gratuity Form
  21. Group Medical Insurance Policy Proposal Form for Employees
  22. Life Insurance Beneficiary Form
  23. Form 12B – Form for furnishing details of income under section 192(2) {Salary Declaration}
  24. Code of Conduct for Prevention of Insider Trading
  25. Declaration/ Undertaking
  26. Declaration of Dependents
  27. Photographs
  28. Copy of employee ID card ( ID number )
  29. Detail of family members
  30. Nominee detail ( for PF,ESI, Gratuity etc amount )
  31. Mail Communication print outs
  32. Copy of Employee Agreement/Employment letter
  33. Declaration to be bound by staff rules
  34. Declaration of fidelity and secrecy
  35. Salary Slips of last three months from previous employer
  36. Reliving / Resignation Letter
  37. Contact Details incase of emergency
  38. Employment Application along with attested photograph
  39. Form I-9 ( Employee eligibility verification )

Documents given to the employee once they have joined the organization (not attached in the employee file) :-


  1. The company’s vision & mission statement
  2. The Policy manual
  3. Their Job profile
  4.  HR manual containing some general policies regarding leave, reimbursement rules 
  5. A Directory or Sheet containing imp. Telephone nos. & ext. nos.
  6. Organizational Structure
  7. HR Policies
  8. List of special welfare policies
  9. Employee events planned for the quarter
  10. Office layout to cafeteria & restrooms and other important areas.
  11. Company’s Do’s and Dont’s
  12. Their Annual Action Plan -to be submitted back after a month –LPG
  1. Copy of all the Code of Conduct Forms.
  2. List of Holidays

Documents to be maintained during the cycle of employment ( Keep updating Documents time  to time ) :-


  1. Appraisal Forms
  2. Performance Related Pay / Bonus Letter
  3. Promotion Letter
  4. Copy of any certificate/degree  get after joining an organization
  5. Attested copy of any change in address, contact detail etc
  6. Record of Leave
  7. Attendance record
  8. List of project/task performing
  9. Maternity Detail
  10. Any up gradation either from employee or employer side  
  11. Check list ( should be filled during first 2 weeks and then after  3 months)

Documents to be required at time of reliving :-


  1. Noticed period (15/30 days)
  2. Clearance Certificate (no dues certificate )
  3. Exit interview Form
  4. Reliving & Experience letter
  5. Retirement detail
  6. List of Forms :-
    1. Transfer of PF ( Form 13 )
    2. Refund of PF ( Form 19 )
    3. Refund of Pension ( Form 10C )
    4. Monthly Pension ( Form 10D )
    5. Claim for Gratuity ( Form I )
    6. Superannuation ( Transfer of employee’s fund, claim for pension
    7. In case death  HR concerned will be claimed to following forms duly filed by legal heirs :
      1. Provident fund
      2. Employee Pension Scheme
      3. Gratuity
      4. Superannuation
      5. EDLI
      6. Group Term Insurance
      7. Group Term Insurance under GIGS

Note: – above mentioned documents/forms might be differ according to company policies.


Changing role of Human Resource Management

October 28, 2013 Leave a comment

Changing role of HRM


Human Resources Management seeks to understand and then support how people do their jobs. Just as important, however, is the understanding of the environment in which that work is done; and how it contributes to the over all success of the organization – i.e. organizational effectiveness. The two are certainly inter-related and inter-dependent.

The Four Roles of HR

 To truly understand the field of Human Resources Management, one must consider and accept the four basic roles of the HR function, no matter how it’s defined. Some of these are already understood and others less so. These are:

1. Compliance and enforcement

2. Management advocacy

3. Strategic partner

4. Employee advocacy

The first two we’ve got down pat. We’ve just begun making inroads on the third and still can’t seem to get a handle on the fourth. 

The Enforcer: 

Most HR practitioners will agree that the role as the employer’s compliance officer is well established. But, it’s increasingly difficult to keep track of changes in state, federal and local laws and regulations. These must then be translated into effective policies and practices. A greater emphasis is also placed today on taking preventative measures to forestall, or at least mitigate, the effects of employee complaints of harassment, wrongful discharge, or discrimination. Though generally perceived of as a reactive function, HR professionals will have to increasingly rely on proactive solutions.

Management Representative: 

This is the other traditional HRM role. As part of the management staff, the HR department is the point of interface between management policies and its employees. It’s charged with communicating and interpreting management dicta. These responsibilities are also considered an extension of the compliance and enforcement roles. What is not communicated can seldom be enforced.

The “open-book management” movement furthers a trend toward greater employee empowerment and is based on a greater sharing of information; much of which is coordinated through human resource procedures. 

Strategic Partner:

 HR has begun stepping from its historical reactive function – like the guy who follows a parade of elephants with a shovel on his shoulder. A complaint is filed, react to it. Jobs open up, fill ‘em. Absenteeism’s on the rise, step up the discipline. The movement to include human resources management in the strategic decision-making process is a relatively new phenomenon. Only a relatively small number of organizations have yet to grant this recognition. This new role does bring with it additional burdens and responsibilities; to be aware of changes in the external environment that will impact the organization; offer appropriate strategies and procedures to anticipate change; and provide regular feed back that helps steer strategic planning. A whole new set of skills and perspectives will be required of HR practitioners. 

Employee Advocate: 

This is not so much a new role as much as it’s practically nonexistent. It’s actually frowned upon in many organizations and is the most difficult of the four to realize. After all, it does seem to be a direct contradiction to serving as an advocate for management. It’s an uncomfortable conflict that many practitioners either choose, or are encouraged, to avoid. Still, it’s a role that must be accepted since it directly impacts the other three. Employee advocacy fosters trust and credibility in the relationship. If employees need someone to speak for them, and if it’s not Human Resources, then who? You guess! Like the overlapping of HRM and OD, the four basic roles for Human Resources management are interrelated and mutually supportive. Success rests in fully accepting all four and striking the proper balance among them. Most HR functions already have the basics of the first two. The organization must shift its culture to accept the third. Both management and the HR professionals must recognize the need for the fourth. But none can be fully actualized absent the other three.

Concepts of Human resource audit

October 20, 2013 Leave a comment

Concepts of Human resource audit




Audit is an important test of managerial control. It involves examination and verification of accounts and records. Human resource audit implies critical examination and evaluation of policies, programs and procedures in the area HR

HR audit involves formal, systematic and in-depth  analysis investigation and comparison.


-          To review the system of acquiring developing allocating and utilizing human resource in the organization

-          Evaluate the extent to which the managers  have implemented the policies and programmes  initiated by top management.

-          To identify short coming in the management of human resources.

-          To evaluate the human resource staff.


-          A change has taken place in managerial philosophy. Employee participation is essential for successful making of the organization.

-          Continuous feedback is necessary for their improvement. It is all the more necessary in a diversified and decentralized organization.

-          Management can meet this challenge through human resource audit.

-          Audit is necessary for labours – increase in labour cost increases opportunities for competitive advantage in HR.

-          HR audit is required to tackle many problem, women employee, professional, technical.


Benefits of HR audit

-          Identification of the achievement of organization objective.

-          Improvement of the professional usage of the department

-          Clarification of HR department, duties and responsibilities.

-          Encourage members to do work effectively

-          Stimulation of HR policies and practices

-          Finding critical human resource problems

-          Ensuring timely compliance with legal requirement

-          Reduction of HR costs through more effective procedure

-          Creation of increases acceptance of the necessary changes in HR department.


Areas of HR audit

-          Mission statement relating to HR

-          Objectives, goals and strategies of HRM

-          Accomplishment of human resource management

-          Detailed practice and procedures

-          Policies

-          Philosophy ,its practice and values

-          Response of employees, trade unions and government to the practice and achievement.

-          Role of HR in total quality management

-          Role of HR in achieving organization mission, vision, goal and strategies ( planning, scheduling, Human resource needs ).



Empowerment -allowing a person to run the show by himself. Self directed and self controlled.       

Characteristics of empowered organization

-put emphasis on delegation decentralized and diffusion of power and information.

- need to change the hierarchical level.

-they appoint fewer managers with responsibilities.

-employee satisfaction


  1. Helping employee in achieving coaching and guided experience that are required fot organizational success.
  2. Allowing more control
  3. Providing successful role model
  4. Giving social reinforcement- giving encourage and feedback
  5. Giving emotional support


Perception of encouragement, self confidence, high value  to job increased use of talent.


  1. give authority equal to their responsibility
  2. tell people what are their responsibility
  3. set standards of excellence
  4. provide them training that enable them to maintain standard
  5. give them knowledge
  6. feedback on their performance


Organization culture , love for authority, attitude towards subordinate, feeling of subordinate.

Making organization empowerment effectively

  1. delegate authority
  2. participative decision making
  3. encourage self management
  4. create  supportive culture.

Enrich job


Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 22,536 other followers

%d bloggers like this: